Types of Analysis
Soil pH determines the acidity, or alkalinity of your soil based on the pH scale. Knowing the soil pH of a soil can influence the planting regime and management of that soil, e.g. lime can be added to an acid soil to increase soil pH.
Nutrient status (magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) & phosphorus (P), determines the concentrations of major plant nutrients available, e.g. 'very low', 'moderate', 'high'. This can help determine a fertiliser regime for your soil.
Organic matter is a determination of the concentration of organic material present within the soil. Organic matter is an important component of soil, assisting in water retention of sandy soils, and aggregating of particles, thus drainage, in 'heavy' clay soils.
Nitrate status, is a major supplier of nitrogen (N) to plants, it is also water soluble and very variable, within the soil system. This analysis varies greatly with water capacity, soil temperature and season, for the majority of gardeners it is probably of limited use. However, horticulturists or competitive growers use the analysis to optimise fertiliser additions.